Our Experts


Carol Rutenberg, RN-BC, C-TNP, MNSc, is a nationally recognized expert, speaker and author in the field of Telephone Triage. She has conducted research and has been recognized as the foremost authority on telephone triage and scope of practice. Ms. Rutenberg has hands-on experience, having been a Telephone Triage nurse in both the office and call center settings. President of Telephone Triage Consulting, Inc, Carol speaks and consults nationally and internationally, specializing in professional education, program design and implementation, and risk management in telephone nursing practice. She also provides legal consultative services and has served as an expert witness in litigation pertaining to telephone triage and ambulatory care nursing. Ms. Rutenberg received her BSN from Baylor University and a master’s degree in nursing administration (MNSc) from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Nursing in Little Rock. She has been published in several peer reviewed nursing journals and is the primary author of The Art & Science of Telephone Triage: How to Practice Nursing Over the Phone. Carol is a member of the Emergency Nurses Association, Sigma Theta Tau, and the Arkansas and American Nurses Associations. Carol is also an active member of the American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing (AAACN), having served that organization in numerous capacities including revision of the Telehealth Nursing Practice Administration and Practice Standards and development of Position Statements on the Nurse Licensure Compact and the Role of the RN in Ambulatory Care. Carol is honored to have received the AAACN President’s “Above and Beyond” Award in 2008. She resides in Hot Springs, Arkansas, with her husband.

  • Koehne, K., Rutenberg, C. (2019).  Telehealth Nursing Practice. In Core Curriculum for Ambulatory Care Nursing 4th Ed. Pitman, NJ: American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing.

  • Rutenberg, C., Greenberg, M.E. (2015).  The Importance of Diagnostic Reasoning in Telephone Triage by Registered Nurses. Published in the Proceedings of the Med-e-Tel Conference. Luxembourg, 22-24 April 2015.

  • Greenberg, M.E., Rutenberg, C., Scheidt, K. (2014). Telehealth Nursing Practice. In Haas, S.A., Swan, B.A., & Haynes, T. S. (Eds.). Care coordination and transition management core curriculum. (pp 175-188).  Pitman, NJ: American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing  

  • Rutenberg, C., Greenberg, M.E. (2014) Telephone Nursing in Radiology: Managing the Risks.  Journal of Radiology Nursing. 33(2), 63-68.

  • Rutenberg, C., Greenberg, M.E. (2012). The Art and Science of Telephone Triage: How to Practice Nursing Over the Phone.  Hot Springs, AR: Telephone Triage Consulting. Inc.

  • Rutenberg, C., Greenberg, M.E., Councell, T., Evans, A. (2011). Telephone triage: A primer for lawyers and LNCs in P. Iyer, B. Levin, K Ashton, V. Powell (Eds.), Nursing Malapractice, 4th ed. Volume II: Roots of Nursing Malpractice. (pp. 541-557). Tucson: Lawyers & Judges.

  • Sherman, M., Rutenberg, C., & Greenberg , M.E. (2009). The role of the RN in ambulatory care. Viewpoint, 31(3), 12-13.

  • Rutenberg, C. (2009). Telephone triage: Timely tips.  Viewpoint, 31(5), 4-6.

  • Rutenberg, C., Oberle, K. (2008) Ethics in telehealth nursing practice.  Home Healthcare Management and Practice, 20(4), 342-348.

  • Rutenberg, C. (2008) How to recognize life-threatening emergencies over the phone. Nursing 2008, 38(2), 56nh1-  56nh4.

  • Rutenberg, C. (2006).  Telephone Assessment of Common Complaints: A Structured Approach for Nurses.  Indianapolis : Ambulatory Innovations.

  • Woodke, D., Rutenberg, C. (2005). Telephone Triage Decision Support Tools for Nurses: Guidelines for Ambulatory Care (7th Edition). Indianapolis: Ambulatory Innovations.

  • Rutenberg, C. (2002) Telephone Triage as a Strategic Initiative, Telephone Triage Times.

  • Rutenberg, C. (2002). A Call for Understanding. Viewpoint, 24(4), 1, 6-10.

  • Rutenberg, C. (2001). Scope of practice [Letter to the editor] American Journal of Nursing, 101(6), 13.

  • Rutenberg, C. (2000). Nursing Licensure: States conflicting stances pose challenges. Viewpoint, 22(1), 1, 5-8).

  • Rutenberg, C. (2000). Regulatory obstacles challenge telephone triage. Nursing Management, 31(7), 47.

  • Rutenberg, C. (2000). Reply. Telephone triage: Protocols & clinical judgment are not mutually exclusive. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 26 (3), 203-4.

  • Rutenberg, C. (2000). So what do we really know about telephone triage? Journal of Emergency Nursing, 26(1),76-78

  • Rutenberg, C. (2000). Telephone triage [Letter to the editor] Annals of Emergency Medicine, 35(1), 98.

  • Rutenberg, C. (2000). Telephone Triage: When the only thing connecting you to your patient is the telephone. American Journal of Nursing, 100(3), 77-81.

  • Rutenberg, C. (1999). Telephone triage: A practice in search of standards, Part I. Telephone Triage Times, 2(4), 4-7.

  • Rutenberg, C. (1999). Telephone triage: A practice in search of standards, Part II Telephone Triage Times, 2(5), 7-9.

  • Rutenberg, C. (1996). Telephone triage: How to practice nursing over the phone (Audiotape and manual). Professional Education Systems, Inc, Eau Claire, WI.

  • Dare, C. (1994). Control as a personality trait of emergency nurses. Unpublished graduate research project, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock.

  • Dare, C. (1984). Teaching nurses advanced skills at a metropolitan hospital. In M. Knowles (Ed.), Andragogy in Action, (Chapter 5, Section 3, p. 323-31) San Francisco: Josey Bass, Inc.


Kathy Koehne, DNP, RN-BC, C-TNP, Kathy Koehne, DNP, RN-BC, C-TNP, has over 30 years’ experience in  nursing, 20 years of which have been in telephone triage nursing practice. In her role as staff development instructor and consultant, Kathy has provided numerous continuing education offerings related to telephone triage. She has been involved at the national level with the American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing (AAACN) and has participated in the writing and development of telehealth resources. For over 10 years, she has served as a columnist for AAACN Viewpoint’sTelehealth Trials and Triumphs. Board certified in ambulatory care nursing and certified in telephone nursing practice, Kathy has participated in the development of national telehealth standards. She also provides legal consultative services and has served as an expert witness in litigation pertaining to telephone nursing practice. Among her many accomplishments is development and operationalization of a telehealth educational module at Gundersen Health System in LaCrosse, Wisconsin. Kathy is certified in Health Care Design and has completed training in the Lean Six Sigma methodolgy. Kathy is currently a clinical manager in ambulatory care at Gundersen Health System and serves as adjunct faculty at Viterbo University. In 2015, Kathy received her Doctorate in Health Innovation and Leadership from the University of Minnesota. 


Liz Greenberg, PhD, RN-BC, C-TNP, is a nationally recognized leader in the field of Telehealth Nursing. A nurse for 24 years, she has extensive experience in telehealth nursing practice, management, and research. For over 13 years Liz has practiced, studied, published, and presented in the field of Telehealth and ambulatory care nursing. Specific practice experiences include telephone triage nursing in multi-specialty pediatric and OB/GYN ambulatory care clinics.

Liz has also worked as manager of a regional after-hours telephone triage service. Management responsibilities included daily operations, staff education and development, quality assurance and fiscal accountability. Over 90 providers from individual offices, group practices, and organizations subscribed to this service, which addressed the health needs of 250,000 patients of all ages. Liz is currently part-time faculty at Northern Arizona University School of Nursing.

Liz began her career with an Associate Degree in Nursing Science. While working as a RN she progressed to a BSN and then on to a Master’s of Science in Nursing. She has numerous presentations and publications based on her thesis research, Evaluation of an Established Telephone Triage Program. In 2005, Liz received her doctorate in Nursing. Her studies and dissertation research focused on the process of care delivery over the telephone. She is currently working toward disseminating those results through publications and presentations. Liz holds national certification in Telephone Nursing Practice and is a member of American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing and Sigma Theta Tau.